双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)三

三、     笔墨特点        

 我国素有“书画同源”之说;不管书与画,所用的工具是相同的。行笔、运笔等技巧相同,中国书法是“以线造字”,而中国画历来是“以线造型”(以线条为主要造型手段)。尽管中国画的革新以色彩为突破口,并出现了大量的以色彩为主的现代作品,但是线条仍然起着重要的作用,传统绘画线条高超的表现技巧以及优秀的文化内涵,已经被继承下来并有所创新。因此,研究中国画线条的历史发展轨迹,使我们对中国画线条的继承与创新有一个更清醒的认识是十分重要的。中国画线条的突出特点是富有表现性,它是至今多数国家绘画艺术中的线条所难以企及的。


Three, Chinese ink features

Our country is known as "calligraphy and painting homology" said; regardless of books and paintings, the tools used are the same. Bank, Yunbi skills such as the same, Chinese calligraphy is "Line defined", and China painting has always been a "Line modeling" (lines as the main means of modeling). Although Chinese painting innovation in color as a breakthrough point, and there are a lot of color mainly to the modern works, but the line still plays an important role in the traditional painting lines superb performance skills and excellent cultural connotation, has been inherited and innovation. Therefore, it is very important to study the history of Chinese painting lines, so that we can have a clearer understanding of the inheritance and innovation of Chinese painting lines. Chinese line painting is the prominent characteristics of the rich performance, it is so far the majority of countries in the art of painting the lines are elusive.


善于“牵着线条去散步”的德国现代主义大师克利说:“笔迹最关键的是表现而不是工整。请考虑—下中国人的做法。”中国画线条表现性技法的成熟虽然远远早于西方,但它不是一步到位的,而是经历了漫长的发展。不动的线到飞动的线。人类在原始社会所创造的线条,主要是直线、横线和圆线。由于使用这些线,人们就可以在画面上画出对象的结构,传达出所要传递的信息。此后随着文明的发展,人们又感到直线、横线和圆线比较呆板、僵硬和缺少动感和生命力,于是创造了一些波状的、粗细不匀的、富有张力的线条。我们从周代青铜器《饕餮簋》、 

 汉代画像石拓片中可以看出, 

 中国画线条从公元前十世纪开始就有了巨大的发展:从平实的线逐渐变为富有生命力的飞动的线条。这种变化是怎样表现出来的呢?


Good at holding line to walk, "the German modernist master Klee said:" the handwriting is the most crucial performance. Please consider the Chinese practice." Although the performance of Chinese painting lines is far more mature than in the west, but it is not a step in place, but experienced a long development. Fixed line to move the line. In primitive society created by human line, is a straight line, horizontal line and the circle line. As a result of the use of these lines, people can draw on the screen structure of the ob-x-ject, to convey the information to be conveyed. Then with the development of civilization, people also feel a straight line, horizontal line and the circle line relatively inflexible, rigid and lack of dynamism and vitality, and creates a number of wavy, uneven thickness, tension lines. We are from the "Gluttonous feasts", Zhou Dai bronze of the Han Dynasty "Han portrait stone rubbings" can be seen in the line China painting began to have great development from tenth Century BC: from the plain line gradually becomes full of vitality of the flying lines. How does this change come about?


这要从线条的位置、运动方向、张力等方面来研究。首先,这两件作品中出现了波状线(亦称蛇形线)。这种线条的位置与方向不像直线那样固定,它好象是在摆动而且活动的方向不确定,这样在视觉上就给人以动感。其次,这两件作品中的线条不像以往直线那样平直均匀,而是有粗有细,由此可知,作者在运笔时所用的力度和速度是不均匀的。这种力度与速度的不同,就表现出线条在空间与时间上的运动,因而给人以动感;再次,我们从饕餮头部的向相反方向夸张性运动的线条中,从马的四条腿最大限度地向不同方向伸展的姿态中可以看出,作者企图通过线条的巨大张力来表现饕餮、马的奋进,使青铜器、石头上的动物给人视觉上强烈的运动感。正是通过这种运动感,才使作品表现出极强的生命活力。从轮廓线到表现结构、空间、亮度的条。有些人常用“单线平涂”来概括中国画的特点,这是不确切的。单线平涂是人类早期绘画的共同特点。自汉末后,中国画的特点就难以用单线平涂来说明了。轮廓线尉旨所画物象的周边线。它面对的是所画物象与它所处空间的关系,因此它只是把某一物象从大的背景中分离出来,而无法显现这一物象的内部结构和光分布。自从中国画家创造了独特的皴法、描法以及擦染之后,对物象内部结构与光分布的处理,就不是借助透视法、明暗法,而是以本民族独特的表现形式描绘出来。从五代时董源的《潇湘图》中,我们可以看到中国画线条的发展变化:


This is from the line position, direction of movement, tension and other aspects of the study. First of all, a wavy line two works (also known as serpentine line). The position and direction of the line is not as fixed as a straight line, it seems to be in the swing and the direction of the movement is not sure, so visually gives a dynamic. Secondly, the lines of the two works are not as straight and uniform as the straight lines in the past, but they are thick and thin, which shows that the strength and speed of the author in the use of the pen is uneven. The intensity and speed of different lines on the show in space and time on the campaign, which gives a dynamic; thirdly, we head in the opposite direction from the gluttonous exaggerated lines of motion, from the maximum four legged horse stretched in different directions in attitude can be seen, the author attempts to to show the enormous tension line gluttonous, horse endeavour, bronze, stone the animal gave a strong visual sense of movement. It is through this sense of movement that the works show a strong vitality. From the outline to the performance structure, space, brightness of the bar. Some people often use "Single line flat" to summarize the characteristics of Chinese painting, which is not accurate. Single line flat painting is a common feature of human early painting. Since the late Han Dynasty, the characteristics of China paintings will be difficult to use Single line flat to explain. Contour Wei purpose by painting images of the surrounding line. It is the face of the painting and the relationship between the ob-x-ject space, so it is a separate ob-x-ject from the background, to show the internal structure of this ob-x-ject and light distribution. Since China artists to create a unique Cunfa, scanning method and rub into, the internal structure and optical images of the distribution, not with perspective, shading, but to form the nation's unique desc-x-ription. From the five generation Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map", we can see the development and change of Chinese painting line:


五代时董源的《潇湘图》(934~960)

 

 

此画用轮廓线界定了山的空间位置和整体走势后,对山体内的各个组成部分,均以长披麻皴线条加点来表现。众多披麻皴线条与点的有序排列,一方面刻画出山岭在一定光线照耀下的皴纹,另一方面表现出山体内各个部分的有机组合,从而有效地描绘了山体的结构。这些表现结构的皴线、点与轮廓线融合后,山的雄姿秀态就尽眼底了。


The five generation Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map" (934 ~ 960)

It defines the mountain space location and the overall trend with the contour line, each of the mountains in part by Long pimacun to add the line. Ordered many pimacun lines and points, one hand depicts the mountain in light of the Texture, on the other hand, from the organic combination of various parts of the body, so as to effectively describe the structure of the mountain. Cun performance of these lines, points and contour integration, Hill Xiongzi show on the state of the fundus.


此画没有用透视法照样画出物象的空间和距离,是由于画家灵活运用了皴线和点。画面的远景部分,画家用的是较短、较小、较淡的皴线与点;近景部分,则用较长、较浓的皴点;山体背阴的部分,用较浓的短线与点;各个山头用重迭法画出,画家用这些方法表现出山体的纵深感。有人认为这种方法没有透视法科学准确。当然,按透视法画出的物象显很逼真。但是,格式塔心理学家指出:透视法的准确是建立在透视缩短与透视变形基础上的,它仅仅是在二维空间表现三维幻觉,是对眼睛的“欺骗”。因此,我们不必用透视法来苛求用皴、点与重迭法来表现物象空间距离——“深度”的中国画。

此画没有用明暗法也画出了物象的光分布。这是因为画家利用皴线有疏有密的排列与部分留自来描绘山体的明部与暗部。显然,这幅画似乎没有固定光源和合乎比例的明暗层次(亮度梯度),但这样的作品并不像有人说的只强调线条韵律不要光,而是采用垂直光分布、正面光(正面留白)来表现光亮,背面、侧面用密集的短皴与点来表现。这种特殊的正面光与明暗分布法,源于道家哲学“万物负阴而抱阳(或者是影响万物自身的因素就是阴阳的调和问题)”的观点。董源之后,画家们又把皴与擦融为一体,进一步表现了物象的明暗层次,色彩的渲染对用皴擦表现光分布也起了辅助作用。这样在表现光的过程中,各种线条一直起着主导作用。董源作品中的线条组合,不仅表现了物象的光分布,而且表现了空气的湿度——南方群山的华滋湿润、苍茫葱郁。这是在西洋画中难以见到的。


It does not use the same perspective to draw images of space and distance, is due to the painter Cracked line and flexibility in the use of the point. The vision part of the screen, the painter used Cracked line and shorter, smaller, lighter; close range, with a long, thick shade of the mountain cracked; part, with short and thick; all the hills with overlap method to draw, the artists use these methods show the mountain feeling of depth. Some people think this method is not scientific and accurate. Of course, according to the perspective of the images painted in very realistic. However, the Gestalt psychologists point out that the accuracy of perspective is ba-x-sed on the perspective of the perspective and the perspective of deformation, it is only in the two-dimensional space of three-dimensional illusion, is the eye of the "deception". Therefore, we do not have to use perspective to expect with Cun, the points of overlap and show images from space - the "depth" of the Chinese painting.

This painting is of no use to draw the shades of images of light distribution. This is because the artists use Cracked line there is a sparse arrangement with the dense part of the mountain and the darker left unsolicited depict. Obviously, this picture seems to have no fixed source and proportionate shades (Luminance gradient), but this is not someone that works only emphasize the rhythm of lines do not light, but the vertical distribution of light, positive light (The paper is blank) to express the light back and the side surface with short and dense strokes point performance. This special positive light and light distribution, derived from the Taoist philosophy, "All things are and Yang (or the influence of all things is the factor of the harmony of yin and Yang"). After Dong Yuan, the painters and the Chapped and wipe integration, further demonstrated the shades images, the color rendering performance of Chapped and wipe distribution also played a supporting role. So in the light of the process, a variety of lines has been playing a leading role. Dong Yuan works in the combination of lines, not only the distribution of images of light, and the performance of the China moist Lush Cangmang, the southern mountains air humidity. It's hard to see in Western painting.


从”存形”的线条到抒情的线条。在唐代以前,中国画以反映社会生活,描绘明君、忠臣、烈士、贞女等人物为主。在留下历史人物真容方面,绘画优于其它著作,所以陆机说:“存形莫善于画。(表述事物的形体的,最好的办法是画画,没有比画画更好的了)”习附(学习这样)的绘画线条功能主要在服务于“存形(保存形状)”,即真实描绘客观对象。


Lyrical lines of "Performance shape" to the Lyric line. Before the Tang Dynasty, Chinese painting to reflect the social life, depicting wise monarch, official loyal his sovereign, Martyr, Virgin and other personage ba-x-sed. After leaving the true historical figures, the painting is superior to other works, so Lu Ji said: "Performance shape The best way is to draw. (describe the shape of things, the best way is to draw, no better than a draw) "(learning) the habit of painting lines in service at the main" Performance shape (save shape) ", namely realdesc-x-ription ob-x-jective ob-x-ject.


     自从宋(960—1279年)、元(1271年—1368年)以后,中国画由以人物为主,逐步转为以山水、花鸟为主,由反映社会生活、描绘历史与现实人物为主,转向以描绘自然景物来折射社会生活,抒发画家感情为主。为了服从这一目的,画家们对线条作了大胆的革新,创造了具有独立审美价值的抒情线条。这种抒情线条与写实性线条的主要差别在以下两个方面。第一、抒情线条特别重视线条的自身张力。所谓张力,简而言之,就是一种相反相成的力。线条张力可分组合张力与自身张力两种。顾恺之仅用横线条与倾斜卷曲的线条组合,就刻画出了人物的形貌与动态。然而他用的这种线条均匀细长,自身并无明显张力。


Since the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) (1271 - 1368), yuan, Chinese painted by the main characters, and gradually turned to landscapes, flowers and birds mainly, by the reflection of social life, depicting the history and reality of the main characters, to describing the natural scenery to reflect social life, express feelings of painting. In order to comply with this goal, painters have made bold innovations to the line, creating an independent aesthetic value of Lyrical lines. The main difference between the Lyrical lines and realistic lines in the following two aspects. First, Lyrical lines special emphasis on the line of tension. The so-called tension, in short, is a kind of both opposite and complementary force. Line tension can be divided into two kinds of tension and tension. Gu kaizhi only horizontal lines and tilt curly lines portfolio, depicts a figure on the morphology and dynamics. However, he used this line is long and thin, there is no obvious tension.


梁楷的《六祖斫竹图》、 

   倪云林的《紫芝山房图》、 

 华岩的《金谷园图》等, 

 就与顾恺之的线条不同了,其线条借鉴了书法线条的特点,自身具有明显的张力。画家在画线条时,不仅像书法家那“欲左先右”、“欲上先下”,而且要使线条有虚有实、有曲有直、有浓有淡、有轻有重、有粗有细、有断有续、有行有留等等。把以前平直、均匀、细韧的线条变得曲折顿挫、千姿百态,极富情致。画家复杂多变的情感,借助这种多姿多变的线条得到了充分的宣泄。这正是中国画线条发展到高级阶段所呈现的奥秘与难以企及之处,它是几十个画家共同创造的成果。


Liang Kai's "Liuzu Cut the bamboo Painting", liuzu Zhuo Ni Yunlin "Rosie real Painting", Hua mountain rock "Jinguyuan Painting" etc., and the line is different from the line, the line drawing on the characteristics of the calligraphy line, its own obvious tension. The painter in the painting lines, not only like that "Towards the left before's" right ",towards upper  First down", and to make the line, does a song straight, thick with short, light weight, coarse and fine, there have continued off and will stay there, etc.. The previous straight, uniform, fine lines become tough duncuo twists and turns, full of interest in different poses and with different ex-x-pressions. The painter's complex and changeable emotion, with the help of this changeable line, has been fully vented. This is the mystery of China painting lines to the advanced stage of development and it is difficult to reach in, dozens of artists work together to create results.


第二、抒情线条并不是自然状态的线条,而是有笔法的线条。中国画笔法主要是指用笔方法。它是中国画的另一个重要奥秘。中国画笔法,除了大家熟知的不同于西洋画的执笔法之外,最值得重视的是运笔法,而且不同类型的线条有不同的运笔法。运笔法也就是笔锋接触纸面时怎样运行的方法,它有多种形式,大体上可分为空间运动形式与时间运动形式。不同的轮廓线,不同的皴法、描法,其线条的空间与时间运动形式是不相同的。空间运动形式有几十种,主要是提按、旋转(绞转)、平动、摆动、从容流行等。时间运动形式也有多种,主要是疾迟(包括快速、中速、慢速)、行留、节奏、涩行与跳动等。中国画家自从掌握了这种笔法后,不仅能“牵着线条去散步”,而且能凭借它翱翔于艺术的王国,刻画各种物象,抒发复杂情感,表现不同个性。这种笔法正被现代画家继承、发展,具有很强的生命力。

 


 

Second, the lyric line is not the natural state lines, but a technique of the lines. Chinese brushwork painting mainly refers to a pen method. It is another Chinese painting Important mystery. China style painting, in addition to the written law known as the western painting is different from the most worthy of attention is the transport technique, but also different types of lines have different Yunbi law. Yunbi law is how to run the Bifeng contact paper, it has a variety of forms, can be divided into space and time form of sports movement form. Different contour lines, different Texturing methods, tracing method, the line of space and time movement is not the same. The spatial form of dozens of sports, mainly to the rotation (able to), move, swing, leisurely fashion. Time has a variety of movement forms, mainly late disease (including fast, medium and slow), to stay the pace, such as Shibuya bank and the beating. China painter since mastered the technique, not only can the holding line to walk, but also by virtue of its flying in the realm of art, depicting various images, complex feelings, different personality. This technique is being modern painter inheritance and development, has the very strong vitality.


现代中国画中的线条。中国画线条经过宋、元、明、清众多画家的创造,达到新的高度。然而艺无止境,随着时代的前进,人们审美能力的提高,中国画线条仍在发展。最近几十年,特别是最近十几年,不少现代中国画家在继承前人技法的基础上,创造了许多前无古人的新线条。


Lines in modern Chinese painting. Chinese painting lines through the song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the creation of many artists to reach a new height. However, art endless, along with the progress of the times, people's aesthetic ability, Chinese painting lines are still developing. In recent decades, especially in recent years, many modern Chinese painters in succession on the basis of previous techniques, has created many new lines with no predecessors.


例如,李可染创造了深邃含蓄的“金错刀式”的线条;朱屺瞻创造厂老辣雄健的“铁干银钩式”的线条;刘文西创造了长于描绘北方人物古朴刚劲的线条;黄永玉创造了曲折多姿的“不连贯”线条;吴冠中创造了极富韵律美的与点分离的长线条;黄胄创造了具有力度美的近似面的宽线条;周韶华创造了线与面、线与色混融一体的具有面的效果的线条;富中奇创造了具有装饰美的表现乡土情结的线条;邱笑秋、宋雨桂等创造了以色彩笔触与水墨线条相融合的新线条等等。这些线条的创造,丰富了中国画的表现力与抒情功能。关注绘画艺术本体中点、线、面、笔墨等抽象的艺术形式;关注绘画空间上的模糊性所引发的观众的想象与再创造。因而,中国传统绘画艺术具有象征、写意、表现的基本特征。以想象真实代替视觉真实是它有别于西方古典写实性艺术的特征,也是中国画诗意化的体现方式。在观察与表现手法上,中国画“外师造化,中得心源(向大自然学习,总结出属于自己的方法)”(张躁语)。并不是完全照抄模仿自然的客观物象,而是加入了创造者很强的主观色彩,即在造化自然的基础上,有所思想,有所寄意。  当前,中国画家正在越来越多地使用墨彩与色彩,全色彩“没骨画”得到了长足的发展。但是,线条并没有被削弱,更不会消失,而是在不断创新中形成新的形态、获得新的生命力,显现出更有时代特点的东方绘画韵味。

 

 


 For example, Li Keran created a profound implication of "the wrong knife style" lines; Zhu Qizhan plant LaoLa Xiongjian create the "iron stem Yingou" lines; Liu Wenxi created good at describing the north of the ancient lines Gangjin; Huang Yongyu created a variety of twists and turns "incoherent" lines; Wu Guanzhong created a beautiful rhythm separation points and the long lines; Huang Zhou has created a beauty of the strength of the approximate width of the lines; Zhou Shaohua created the Line and surface, Line and color Mixing and melting with the results of the line; Fu Zhongqi has created a decorative beauty on the performance of the native complex line; Qiu Xiaoqiu and Song Yugui created the color strokes and ink lines of the integration of new lines and so on. The creation of these lines enriches the expressive power and lyric function of Chinese painting. Pay attention to the abstract art form such as the middle point, line, surface and Chinese ink of the painting art; pay attention to the imagination and re creation of the audience caused by the fuzziness in the painting space. Therefore, the traditional Chinese painting art has the basic characteristics of symbol, freehand brushwork and . It is not only different from the western classical realistic art, but also the embodiment of Chinese painting in the way of imagination. In the observation and performance practices, the Chinese painting "The study nature of, Get own knowledge (learning from nature, summed up their own method)" (Zhang Zao). Not simply copy the ob-x-ject imitation of nature, but joined the creators of the highly subjective, that is some thought natural on the basis of fortune, Have, some, meaning. Currently, Chinese painters are increasingly using ink color and color, full-color painting without but outline forms achieved by washes of ink and color has been a considerable development. However, the lines have not been weakened, but will not disappear, but in the continuous innovation in the formation of a new form, to obtain new vitality, showing a more contemporary characteristics of Oriental painting charm.

待续
To be continued


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